体育彩票福建36选7开奖结果: 福建36选7第18123期

人工智能系統大大提高了肺癌的預測

時間:2019-06-04 22:36來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
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福建36选7第18123期 www.pysue.com Researchers: AI System Greatly Improves Lung Cancer Predictions

Researchers have developed a new machine system that they say can detect lung cancer as well as or better than doctors.

The system is powered by a deep learning algorithm that researchers from Google and Northwestern University created. Deep learning is a method of artificial intelligence or AI that teaches computers to learn by example.

The system is explained in a study published in the journal Nature Medicine.

The World Health Organization, or WHO, reports lung cancer is the most common form of cancer across the world. The WHO estimates that each year, lung cancer results in about 1.7 million deaths. Lung cancer has one of the worst survival rates among all cancers. However, as is the case with most cancers, survival rates can be greatly improved when the disease is caught early.

For many years, doctors have attempted to improve screening methods to detect lung cancer. The most common tool currently used is computed1 tomography, or CT. A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed2 images of bones, organs and other tissue inside the body.

Doctors who are trained to study CT images of tissue examine the scans to look for evidence of cancer. The process can involve hundreds of images.

The examination of CT scans to detect lung cancer has been shown to reduce death rates by 20 to 43 percent, the study said. But it also noted3 that the method also results in a high rate of false-positive or false-negative cancer diagnoses.

The new deep-learning system uses an algorithm and three-dimensional or 3D technology to examine the CT scans, Google reported on its website. The method works by learning how to detect signs of cancer from a large number of CT samples.

The study reports the system was tested on 6,716 cases with known diagnoses, in partnership4 with the National Cancer Institute. The system’s overall success rate was 94.4 percent. When examining a CT scan for diagnosis5, the deep-learning model performed equal to or better than six radiologists, the study found. Radiologists specialize in medical imaging to diagnose disease.

Google said in a statement, “We detected five percent more cancer cases while reducing false-positive exams by more than 11 percent compared to unassisted radiologists in our study.”

Dr. Mozziyar Etemadi is a professor of engineering at Northwestern University. He helped lead the research. He said the use of 3D technology marks a big step forward in the CT examination process.

“AI in 3D can be much more sensitive in its ability to detect early lung cancer than the human eye looking at 2D images,” Etemadi said. He added: “This is technically6 ‘4D' because it is not only looking at one CT scan, but two - the current and prior scan - over time.”

Lily Peng is a product manager at Google’s Brain AI Research Group. She spoke7 about the study’s results during Google’s I/O 2019 conference earlier this month. She noted that the deep-learning system was able to identify very small signs of lung cancer that are difficult for humans to detect.

Peng noted that the method can be especially helpful in predicting cancer in patients whose early scans do not show doctors signs of lung cancer -- even though cancer might be present. In such a case, a one-year break between CT scans could mean the cancer could become very serious before being found on a second scan.

“Our model was able to detect these early signs – one year before the patient was actually diagnosed," Peng said. “And that year could translate to an increased survival rate of 40 percent for patients like this.“

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Words in This Story

detect – v. discover or notice something

algorithm – n. set of steps that are followed in order to solve a mathematical problem or to complete a computer process

artificial intelligence – n. the ability of a machine to use and analyze8 data in an attempt to reproduce human behavior

screening – n. medical procedure to find out if a person has an illness by completing tests on them

diagnosis – n. a doctor’s opinion of what is wrong with someone

three-dimensional – adj. having or seeming to have length, width, depth

sensitive – adj. able to measure very small changes

prior – adj. existing or happening before something else

translate – v. to turn into or make happen


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 computed 5a317d3dd3f7a2f675975a6d0c11c629     
adj.[醫]計算的,使用計算機的v.計算,估算( compute的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • He computed that the project would take seven years to complete. 他估計這項計劃要花七年才能完成。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Resolving kernels and standard errors can also be computed for each block. 還可以計算每個塊體的分辨核和標準誤差。 來自辭典例句
2 detailed xuNzms     
adj.詳細的,詳盡的,極注意細節的,完全的
參考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他對地形作了縝密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我們的出版物有一份詳細的目錄備索。
3 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
參考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.當地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著稱。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班遲到出了名。
4 partnership NmfzPy     
n.合作關系,伙伴關系
參考例句:
  • The company has gone into partnership with Swiss Bank Corporation.這家公司已經和瑞士銀行公司建立合作關系。
  • Martin has taken him into general partnership in his company.馬丁已讓他成為公司的普通合伙人。
5 diagnosis GvPxC     
n.診斷,診斷結果,調查分析,判斷
參考例句:
  • His symptoms gave no obvious pointer to a possible diagnosis.他的癥狀無法作出明確的診斷。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程師對橋的倒塌做一次徹底的調查分析。
6 technically wqYwV     
adv.專門地,技術上地
參考例句:
  • Technically it is the most advanced equipment ever.從技術上說,這是最先進的設備。
  • The tomato is technically a fruit,although it is eaten as a vegetable.嚴格地說,西紅柿是一種水果,盡管它是當作蔬菜吃的。
7 spoke XryyC     
n.(車輪的)輻條;輪輻;破壞某人的計劃;阻撓某人的行動 v.講,談(speak的過去式);說;演說;從某種觀點來說
參考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他們的輪輻螺帽是從我們公司獲得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.輻條是輪子上連接外圈與中心的條棒。
8 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
參考例句:
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我們應該分析這場事變的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老師設法分析我們失敗的原因。
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