福建36选7开奖11057: 福建36选7第18123期

VOA慢速英語2019 發現世界上最古老的真菌化石

時間:2019-06-04 22:39來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
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福建36选7第18123期 www.pysue.com World’s Oldest Fossil Fungus1 Found

Scientists made a big discovery in Canada, but it is something so small you need a microscope to see it.

科學家在加拿大有了一項重大發現,但它太小了,需要用顯微鏡才能看到。 

The scientists reported discovering what they believe is the remains2 of the oldest-known fungus, which could be up to 1 billion years old. They found it in the Arctic area of Canada and named it Ourasphaira giraldae.

科學家們報告說,他們發現了他們認為是已知的最古老的真菌殘骸,這種真菌可能有10億年的歷史。他們是在加拿大的北極地區發現的它,他們將其命名為“史前真菌”。

A report on their find was published in the journal Nature.

他們的發現發表在《自然》雜志上。 

The multi-celled fungus is an ancestor to a large group of organisms, which today includes mushrooms, yeasts3 and molds. Ourasphaira lived where a river runs into a sea, about 900 million to 1 billion years ago. That is two times older than earlier scientific fungus finds.

這種多細胞真菌是一大群生物體的祖先,包括如今的生物體蘑菇、酵母和霉菌。大約在9億到10億年前,史前真菌生活在一條河流入海的地方。這比早期科學真菌發現的時間早兩倍。

Until now, the oldest known fossil fungus, found in Scotland, was about 410 million years old.

迄今為止,在蘇格蘭發現的最古老的真菌化石大約有4.1億年的歷史。 

But some researchers are not yet sure that the fossil is truly a fungus. Mary Berbee, a scientist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, told Nature that there is "reason for believing it is real at this point." She added that, "more data would be really useful."

但一些研究人員還不確定這個化石是否真的是真菌。加拿大溫哥華英屬哥倫比亞大學的科學家瑪麗·貝比告訴《自然》雜志,“有理由相信這是真的。”她還說,“獲取更多數據對證明這一點來說非常有用。”

While you may not be happy to find mold growing in your home, or on your food, fungi4 do have important work. They help organic material to decompose5, or break down.

雖然你可能不喜歡在家里或食物上發現霉菌,但真菌確實有重要的作用。它們可以幫助有機物分解或分解。

Fungi, the plural6 of fungus, are part of a large group of organisms called eukaryotes. The group includes both animals and plants, which have a clearly defined nucleus7 in their cells.

“Fungi”是“fungus(真菌)”的復數形式,是真核生物一大群有機體的一部分。這個群體包括動物和植物,它們的細胞中有一個明確的細胞核。

One important difference between fungi and plants is that fungi cannot make nutrients8 for themselves by using sunlight. This process is known as photosynthesis9.

真菌和植物的一個重要區別是,真菌不能利用陽光為自己制造營養。這個過程被稱為光合作用。 

Fungi and animals developed together in a close relationship on Earth. The researchers believe that because of this, microscopic10 animals may have lived at the same time as the Ourasphaira fungus. But, so far, the earliest animal fossils date back to about 635 million years ago.

真菌和動物在地球上有緊密的聯系。研究人員認為,正因為如此,顯微鏡下的動物可能與我們的史前真菌生活在同一時期。但是,到目前為止,最早的動物化石可以追溯到大約6.35億年前。

Corentin Loron is a paleobiologist with the University of Liège in Belgium, and the lead writer of the report. He said that while fungi are one of the more diverse groups of eukaryotes today, their ancient fossil record is "very scarce." In other words, there are not many of them.

卡爾汀·羅宏是比利時列日大學的古生物學家,也是這份報告的主要作者。他說,雖然真菌是當今最多樣化的真核生物群體之一,但關于它們的古老化石記錄“非常稀少”?;瘓浠八?,他們并不多。

The newest fossils were found in rock from the Northwest Territories of Canada. Scientific tests dated them back to the Proterozoic era. That was a time before complex life forms appeared on Earth. Loren said the fossil record from that period "is still a mysterious jigsaw11 puzzle, and we just added a new piece to it."

最新發現的化石是在加拿大西北地區的巖石中發現的??蒲Р饈越親匪蕕皆糯?。那是地球上出現復雜生命形式之前的一段時間。羅宏說,那個時期的化石記錄“仍然是一個神秘的拼圖游戲,我們只是給它添加了一塊新的。”

Researchers decided12 it was a fungus fossil in part because they identified the presence of a substance called chitin in Ourasphaira’s cell walls. Chitin also is found in creatures without backbones13, like insects and crustaceans15.

研究人員認為它在某種程度上來看是一塊真菌化石,因為他們發現了一種叫做幾丁質的物質存在于史前真菌的細胞壁中。幾丁質也存在于沒有脊椎的生物中,比如昆蟲和甲殼類動物。

Loron said that, when talking about fungi, "we think of poisonous mushrooms or mold that grows on food." But he added that fungi are also well known to help productivity in fields, and they even help in making beer, or to help cows break down their food.

羅宏說,當談到真菌時,“我們想到的是生長在食物上的有毒蘑菇或霉菌。”但他還說,眾所周知,真菌還有助于提高農田生產力,甚至有助于釀造啤酒,或幫助奶牛分解食物。

Words in This Story

fungus – n. a group of spore-producing organisms that feed on organic material

data – n. facts and other information used for reasoning or making estimates

mold - n. a soft substance that grows on the surface of damp or rotting things

fossil – n. remains of a plant or animal which lived in ancient times

plural – adj. suggesting more than one

diverse – adj. different from each other

jigsaw puzzle – n. a puzzle made of many pieces that are cut into different shapes and can be put together to form a picture

crustacean14 – n. a kind of animal (such as a crab or lobster) that has several pairs of legs and a body made up of parts that are covered in a hard outer shell


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 fungus gzRyI     
n.真菌,真菌類植物
參考例句:
  • Mushrooms are a type of fungus.蘑菇是一種真菌。
  • This fungus can just be detected by the unaided eye.這種真菌只用肉眼就能檢查出。
2 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,殘留物;遺體,遺跡
參考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.殘羹剩飯喂狗了。
3 yeasts 6b2eca0ad59a93e429f62e7251090f31     
酵母( yeast的名詞復數 ); 酵母菌; 發面餅; 發酵粉
參考例句:
  • The basidiospores proliperate in a manner comparable to the multiplication of yeasts. 擔孢子以一種可與酵母繁殖相比擬的方式進行增殖。
  • Wine yeasts can grow in sweet wines even after bottling. 裝瓶以后葡萄酒酵母也能在甜葡萄酒中生長。
4 fungi 6hRx6     
n.真菌,霉菌
參考例句:
  • Students practice to apply the study of genetics to multicellular plants and fungi.學生們練習把基因學應用到多細胞植物和真菌中。
  • The lawn was covered with fungi.草地上到處都是蘑菇。
5 decompose knPzS     
vi.分解;vt.(使)腐敗,(使)腐爛
參考例句:
  • The eggs began to decompose after a day in the sun.雞蛋在太陽下放了一天后開始變壞。
  • Most animals decompose very quickly after death.大多數動物死后很快腐爛。
6 plural c2WzP     
n.復數;復數形式;adj.復數的
參考例句:
  • Most plural nouns in English end in's '.英語的復數名詞多以s結尾。
  • Here you should use plural pronoun.這里你應該用復數代詞。
7 nucleus avSyg     
n.核,核心,原子核
參考例句:
  • These young people formed the nucleus of the club.這些年輕人成了俱樂部的核心。
  • These councils would form the nucleus of a future regime.這些委員會將成為一個未來政權的核心。
8 nutrients 6a1e1ed248a3ac49744c39cc962fb607     
n.(食品或化學品)營養物,營養品( nutrient的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • a lack of essential nutrients 基本營養的缺乏
  • Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. 營養素被吸收進血液。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
9 photosynthesis A2Czp     
n.光合作用
參考例句:
  • In apple trees photosynthesis occurs almost exclusively in the leaves.蘋果樹的光合作用幾乎只發生在葉內。
  • Chloroplasts are the structures in which photosynthesis happens.葉綠體就是光合作用發生的地方。
10 microscopic nDrxq     
adj.微小的,細微的,極小的,顯微的
參考例句:
  • It's impossible to read his microscopic handwriting.不可能看清他那極小的書寫字跡。
  • A plant's lungs are the microscopic pores in its leaves.植物的肺就是其葉片上微細的氣孔。
11 jigsaw q3Gxa     
n.縷花鋸,豎鋸,拼圖游戲;vt.用豎鋸鋸,使互相交錯搭接
參考例句:
  • A jigsaw puzzle can keep me absorbed for hours.一副拼圖就能讓我沉醉幾個小時。
  • Tom likes to work on jigsaw puzzles,too.湯姆也喜歡玩拼圖游戲。
12 decided lvqzZd     
adj.決定了的,堅決的;明顯的,明確的
參考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.這使他們比對手具有明顯的優勢。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英國人和中國人打招呼的方式有很明顯的區別。
13 backbones c4c409c030b485ea5d90968a63228387     
n.骨干( backbone的名詞復數 );脊骨;骨氣;脊骨狀物
參考例句:
  • Why do hummingbirds and gorillas both have backbones? 為什么蜂鳥和大猩猩都有脊骨? 來自辭典例句
  • Simply adding bandwidth to the Internet backbones is not an answer. 只是簡單的在互聯網骨架上增加帶寬是應付不了的。 來自互聯網
14 crustacean Mnrzu     
n.甲殼動物;adj.甲殼綱的
參考例句:
  • Seafood is a valuable lobster crustacean section.名貴海珍品龍蝦屬甲殼科。
  • The illustrious Cuvier did not perceive that a barnacle was a crustacean.大名鼎鼎的居維葉也未看出藤壺是一種甲殼動物。
15 crustaceans 37ad1a9eb8e9867969edd084ce8032d5     
n.甲殼綱動物(如蟹、龍蝦)( crustacean的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • These crustaceans provide a valuable food source for some fish. 這些甲殼綱動物是某些魚類重要的食物來源。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • When the tide ebbs it's a rock pool inhabited by crustaceans. 退潮時,它便成為甲殼動物居住的巖石區潮水潭。 來自辭典例句
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