福建36选7开奖研究qq群338080: 福建36选7第18123期

VOA慢速英語2019 防曬霜中的化學物質穿過皮膚進入血液

時間:2019-06-04 22:40來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]

福建36选7第18123期 www.pysue.com Sunscreen’s Chemicals Go Through Skin to Bloodstream

The active chemicals of commonly-used sunscreens end up in a wearer’s blood. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, reported recently that the chemicals are present at much higher levels than current government health rules permit. For this reason, the researchers call for more safety studies.


From sunburn to skin cancer protection


Sunscreens were first sold to prevent sunburn and did not have to meet many government regulations. Now they are widely used to block radiation from the sun that can cause skin cancer, the most common kind of cancer in the United States.


To test some of the effects of sunscreen, researchers worked with 23 volunteers. They tested four forms of sunscreen by putting it on most of the volunteers’ bodies four times a day over four days. Then, they did blood tests over seven days to find the levels of certain chemicals absorbed into the volunteers’ blood.


The study looked for the chemicals from sunscreen in plasma1, the watery2 part of blood that contains blood cells. It found four chemicals to be well above the level at which FDA guidelines call for further safety testing. They are avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene and in one sunscreen, ecamsule.


The effects of plasma concentrations above the FDA’s limit is not known. The research team wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) that there must be more studies on how the chemicals affect humans.


Keep using sunscreen to protect skin from the sun


But these results do not suggest that people should stop using sunscreen to protect against the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays, researchers said.


Two researchers added their opinion in an article that followed the report. Robert Califf and Kanade Shinkai said the fact there were high levels of the chemicals in blood does not mean they are unsafe.


"The study findings raise many important questions about sunscreen and the process by which the sunscreen industry, clinicians, specialty3 organizations, and regulatory agencies evaluate (its) benefits and risks.”


David Andrews is a senior scientist at the nonprofit health and environmental advocacy group Environmental Working Group. He called for thorough testing of sunscreen ingredients.


"For years the sunscreen chemical manufactures have resisted common sense safety testing for their ingredients and now FDA is proposing that these common ingredients must undergo additional testing to stay on the market," Andrews said.


However, the Personal Care Products Council trade association pointed4 out some problems with the study. They fear that people may not understand it well and could stop using sunscreen.


The volunteers in the study put on two times as much sunscreen as people usually apply in everyday use, said Alexandra Kowcz, the group's chief scientist.


Words in This Story

sunscreen – n. a lotion5 that you put on your skin to prevent sunburn by blocking out some of the sun's rays

regulation – an official rule or law that says how something should be done

absorb – v. to take in (something, such as a liquid) in a natural or gradual way

clinician – n. a person (such as a doctor or nurse) who works directly with patients rather than in a laboratory or as a researcher

evaluate – v. to judge the value or condition of (someone or something) in a careful and thoughtful way

benefit – n. something that produces good or helpful results or effects or that promotes well-being6

advocacy – n. the act or process of supporting a cause or proposal

ingredients – n. one of the things that are used to make a food or product

apply – v. to lay or spread on

certain – adj. known but not named


1 plasma z2xzC     
  • Keep some blood plasma back for the serious cases.留一些血漿給重病號。
  • The plasma is the liquid portion of blood that is free of cells .血漿是血液的液體部分,不包含各種細胞。
2 watery bU5zW     
  • In his watery eyes there is an expression of distrust.他那含淚的眼睛流露出驚惶失措的神情。
  • Her eyes became watery because of the smoke.因為煙熏,她的雙眼變得淚汪汪的。
3 specialty SrGy7     
  • Shell carvings are a specialty of the town.貝雕是該城的特產。
  • His specialty is English literature.他的專業是英國文學。
4 pointed Il8zB4     
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他給我一支削得非常尖的鉛筆。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通過對達茨伍德夫人提出直截了當的邀請向她的哥哥表示出來。
5 lotion w3zyV     
  • The lotion should be applied sparingly to the skin.這種洗液應均勻地涂在皮膚上。
  • She lubricates her hands with a lotion.她用一種洗劑來滑潤她的手。
6 well-being Fe3zbn     
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他總是把群眾的疾苦掛在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我關心他們的幸福,卻被誤解為多管閑事。
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