福建36选7开奖信息: 福建36选7第18123期

US State Lawmakers Debate Teaching Consent to Students

時間:2019-06-04 22:43來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
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福建36选7第18123期 www.pysue.com  

At a Roman Catholic high school in the United States, students divide into groups to discuss once-restricted issues: abusive relationships and consent.

Central Catholic High School recently began using educators from a domestic violence shelter to teach students about what it means to give consent to sexual activity. The goal is to reduce sexual violence and abuse among young people and help them understand what behavior is acceptable -- and what is not -- before they become adults.

Central Catholic High is in the western U.S. city of Portland, Oregon. David Blue is the school’s director of diversity and inclusion. He said, “We’re talking about dating violence, sexual assault, relationships, #MeToo - all of those things.” Blue spoke1 to The Associated Press (AP).

What is taking place at his school represents a larger debate. Lawmakers, educators and teens are asking themselves whether sex education should be changed to better deal with some of the issues raised by the #MeToo movement against sexual abuse.

Consent

At the center of the debate is whether schools should expand their programs to help students understand consent – something that is defined differently from state to state.

Jennifer Driver is state policy director of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States, which supports liberal sex education policies. Driver says the #MeToo movement “has brought the issue of consent into the “national spotlight2.” She added that it is clear some people still struggle with the cultural change that is happening.

Driver said, “When done right, sex education can serve as violence prevention. But first, we have to get these policies (enacted).”

Already this year, lawmakers in many state legislatures have considered sex education bills. But only five states have passed such measures. And just two require clearly defined directives about consent. That information comes from the Guttmacher Institute, which studies sexuality and reproductive health issues.

In all, 10 states and the District of Columbia require that consent be part of the sex education program.

More than 30 states require that teachers talk about abstinence in sex ed programs. Abstinence in this case is the practice or custom of avoiding or not having sex. In recent years, most federal money for sex education has gone to abstinence programs.

The divide over how to teach sex education has long split on the question of whether children are “sexual beings,” said Jonathan Zimmerman. He serves as Professor of History of Education at the University of Pennsylvania.

At times, sex education classes have taught students clear and detailed3 information about sex, as well as birth control and sexually transmitted diseases. At other times, the classes are almost entirely4 abstinence-centered.

With the #MeToo movement, some Americans see sex education classes as a way to reduce sexual violence.

This year, lawmakers in Oklahoma considered a bill that would have required state high schools to teach consent. The measure is called “Lauren’s Law.” It is named for a student who said she was raped5 at a high school party. The Oklahoma Legislature went on to pass a narrower measure requiring that schools with a sex ed program teach students about consent. It does not require the same from schools that do not offer sex education classes.

Abstinence-based sex education

As with most issues in education, local school officials play a big part in shaping sex education curriculum. Many state laws on sex education are written in an unclear way on purpose.

The southern state of Tennessee requires an abstinence-based curriculum. But some students there are leading their own discussions about consent.

In the city of Memphis, students are active with an organization called Memphis Against Sexual Harassment7 and Assault. As part of the group, they have taken part in a campaign designed to spread recognition of sexual abuse and violence. They also have held training events that teach about consent.

These issues are personal to Devin Dearmore and Savanah Thompson. Dearmore, who is 18, said she was sexually harassed8 by a worker at her school. Fifteen-year-old Thompson said she was groped and held against a wall by another student when she was in 8th grade. She later was blamed for the incident.

Thompson told the AP, “We’re being taught all of these things preparing us for college. But they’re not teaching you how to cope with things that can derail your life. ... That’s where our school system — and school systems nationwide — have failed us. In middle and elementary school, I didn’t know I could say no.”

Some who oppose teaching consent believe it signals an approval of teen sexual activity.

Mary Anne Mosack heads an abstinence education group called Ascend9. She said it has been talking about consent for years but with the idea that “avoiding sex is your best” choice. Ascend has trained about 1,500 educators in public and private schools, as well as other places.

Critics of abstinence-based programs say they close down urgently needed discussions. And they say if their goal is to reduce sexual activity, their results appear questionable10.

A study published last month found that Memphis was first among 17 areas named in the study in the rate of boys who had sex before they were teenagers. The study found 1 in 4 boys have sex before their 13th birthday. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported the findings.

As for teaching students to delay sex until marriage, Columbia University researcher John Santilli considers that unreasonable11 in a country where just 3 percent of people do so.

“Abstinence until marriage in America in 2019? It’s an impossible goal,” said Santilli, who studies child health and population health. He added that more than half of Americans have sex before leaving high school.

“…I think we ought to tell young people if they’re not ready to have sex with people, if they’ve had too much to drink, if they somehow feel uncomfortable with somebody, they can say no," he said. "To me, that’s feminism in action.”

Santilli led a study that found teaching “refusal skills” in high school can cut in half the chances someone is raped in college.

'It...opened my eyes'

Back in Oregon, Central Catholic High Principal John Garrow hoped to balance students’ need for information with Catholic teachings on abstinence before marriage.

Garrow examined several programs before choosing Raphael House, whose program includes work with sexual and domestic assault survivors12.

Garrow said, “We’re trying to do our best to follow the teachings and at the same time be realistic, because as a school you lose your relevance13 real quickly if you’re not real.”

In a wellness class last month, two Raphael House trainers asked students to consider signs of healthy and unhealthy relationships. Does your partner make you feel valued? Stupid? Afraid?

“It, like, opened my eyes,” said Ramaya Wright, who is 15. “I didn’t know those are a lot of the signs of an abusive relationship.”

I'm Ashley Thompson.

And I'm Caty Weaver14.

Words in This Story

consent - n. permission for something to happen or be done

domestic violence - n. physical harm done to a member of a family or household by another member of the same family or household

diversity - n. ?the quality or state of having many different forms, types, ideas, etc.?

abstinence - n. ?the practice of not doing or having something that is wanted or enjoyable?

curriculum - n. the courses that are taught by a school, college, etc.

harass6 - v.? to make unwanted sexual comments ?

grope - v. to touch (someone) in an unwanted and unexpected sexual way?

cope - v. to deal with problems and difficult situations and try to come up with solutions?

derail - v. to reduce or delay the chances for success or development?

uncomfortable - adj.? causing a feeling of being embarrassed or uneasy

relevance - n. the quality or state of being closely connected? to a subject


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 spoke XryyC     
n.(車輪的)輻條;輪輻;破壞某人的計劃;阻撓某人的行動 v.講,談(speak的過去式);說;演說;從某種觀點來說
參考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他們的輪輻螺帽是從我們公司獲得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.輻條是輪子上連接外圈與中心的條棒。
2 spotlight 6hBzmk     
n.公眾注意的中心,聚光燈,探照燈,視聽,注意,醒目
參考例句:
  • This week the spotlight is on the world of fashion.本周引人矚目的是時裝界。
  • The spotlight followed her round the stage.聚光燈的光圈隨著她在舞臺上轉。
3 detailed xuNzms     
adj.詳細的,詳盡的,極注意細節的,完全的
參考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他對地形作了縝密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我們的出版物有一份詳細的目錄備索。
4 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,徹底地
參考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那場火災完全是由于他們失職而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生統統獻給了教育工作。
5 raped 7a6e3e7dd30eb1e3b61716af0e54d4a2     
v.以暴力奪取,強奪( rape的過去式和過去分詞 );強奸
參考例句:
  • A young woman was brutally raped in her own home. 一名年輕女子在自己家中慘遭強暴。 來自辭典例句
  • We got stick together, or we will be having our women raped. 我們得團結一致,不然我們的妻女就會遭到蹂躪。 來自辭典例句
6 harass ceNzZ     
vt.使煩惱,折磨,騷擾
參考例句:
  • Our mission is to harass the landing of the main Japaness expeditionary force.我們的任務是騷亂日本遠征軍主力的登陸。
  • They received the order to harass the enemy's rear.他們接到騷擾敵人后方的命令。
7 harassment weNxI     
n.騷擾,擾亂,煩惱,煩亂
參考例句:
  • She often got telephone harassment at night these days.這些天她經常在夜晚受到電話騷擾。
  • The company prohibits any form of harassment.公司禁止任何形式的騷擾行為。
8 harassed 50b529f688471b862d0991a96b6a1e55     
adj. 疲倦的,厭煩的 動詞harass的過去式和過去分詞
參考例句:
  • He has complained of being harassed by the police. 他投訴受到警方侵擾。
  • harassed mothers with their children 帶著孩子的疲憊不堪的母親們
9 ascend avnzD     
vi.漸漸上升,升高;vt.攀登,登上
參考例句:
  • We watched the airplane ascend higher and higher.我們看著飛機逐漸升高。
  • We ascend in the order of time and of development.我們按時間和發展順序向上溯。
10 questionable oScxK     
adj.可疑的,有問題的
參考例句:
  • There are still a few questionable points in the case.這個案件還有幾個疑點。
  • Your argument is based on a set of questionable assumptions.你的論證建立在一套有問題的假設上。
11 unreasonable tjLwm     
adj.不講道理的,不合情理的,過度的
參考例句:
  • I know that they made the most unreasonable demands on you.我知道他們對你提出了最不合理的要求。
  • They spend an unreasonable amount of money on clothes.他們花在衣服上的錢太多了。
12 survivors 02ddbdca4c6dba0b46d9d823ed2b4b62     
幸存者,殘存者,生還者( survivor的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • The survivors were adrift in a lifeboat for six days. 幸存者在救生艇上漂流了六天。
  • survivors clinging to a raft 緊緊抓住救生筏的幸存者
13 relevance gVAxg     
n.中肯,適當,關聯,相關性
參考例句:
  • Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活與他們的公眾角色不相關。
  • Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法與現代社會完全脫節。
14 weaver LgWwd     
n.織布工;編織者
參考例句:
  • She was a fast weaver and the cloth was very good.她織布織得很快,而且布的質量很好。
  • The eager weaver did not notice my confusion.熱心的紡織工人沒有注意到我的狼狽相。
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